Friday, December 6, 2019

Friar Laurence Always Intended the Best for Romeo Essay Example For Students

Friar Laurence Always Intended the Best for Romeo Essay and JulietHoly Saint Francis! What a change is here!Is Rosaline, that thou didst love so dear,So soon forsaken? Young mens love then liesNot truly in their hearts, but in their eyes(II, III)This is only some of the wisdom spoken by Friar Laurence to young Romeo in William Shakespeares Romeo and Juliet on the decision made by him to wed thirteen year old Juliet in such hastiness. Romeo sought after the confidence of Friar Laurence when he first met Juliet as there was no one else he could turn to, especially when the couple decided they were going to be married. There are many are many instances in the play that indicate Friar Laurence always intended the best for Romeo and Juliet. That is, no matter the tragic outcome of the play, Friar Laurences only intention was for the marriage of Romeo and Juliet to be happy, everlasting and for it to bring peace to the civil feud between the families. Although he is not seen very much during the play, Friar Laurences role is a highly important one. In Romeo and Juliet there are three main events, the marriage, the plan and the death, that relate to him. One of the most true and sensible things told to Romeo by the Friar, was a forewarning to the hastiness of the wedding;These violent delights have violent endsAnd in their triumphs die, like fire and powderWhich as they kiss, consume. The sweetest honeyIs loathsome in its own deliciousnessAnd in the taste confounds the appetiteTherefor love moderately, long love doth so;Too swift arrives as tardy as too slow. (II, VI)These words aimed directly at Romeo mean that with the metaphor The sweetest honey/Is loathsome in its own deliciousness is that something so sweet can become sickly and you could quickly lose your appetite for it. Initially the Friar is trying to convince Romeo that Juliet would be something he would grow out of ie. like his love for Rosaline. In the last two lines of the quote, the Friar is trying to convince Romeo that nothing as important as love and marriage should not be jumped into when it could be done just as slow to be confident that the right decision is made leaving no room for regrets. After conversing with Romeo of the importance of marriage, the Friar was given a short time to think and finally realises how much Romeo really cares about Juliet and gives his consent to marry them. He also thought of what could come from the marriage, and recognises that good could come from the only heirs to the Montague and Capulets fortune being united in marriage, hopefully then the families would unite in peace. The ongoing feud between the Montagues and Capulets is one of the key events of the play, for if there was no rivalry between the two houses Romeo and Juliet would have no reason to hide their love for each other. This is one time where Friar Laurence demonstrates his selfless motivations by marrying Juliet and her Romeo as without consent of the parents a marriage is not usually allowed to take place. These are Friar Laurences words to Romeo which show him risking his position in the Verona society as a highly regarded priest when he agrees to marry the couple;Thy love did read by rote, that could not spell. But come, young waverer, come go with me. In one respect Ill thy assistant be;For this alliance may so happy proveTo turn your households rancor to pure love (II, III)Not only did the Friar wed the couple and constantly support them by acting out their wishes continuously, there is an example of this when Romeo is banished and the Friar tells Romeo to go to his bride and spend their wedding night together and he sort out for Romeo, the banishment ordeal and organise a place for him to stay in Mantua while the Friar continues his plea for Romeo banishment to be revoked;Ascend to her, hence comfort her. .u4e778ea8ccde5da21839bcc1dcbd48fc , .u4e778ea8ccde5da21839bcc1dcbd48fc .postImageUrl , .u4e778ea8ccde5da21839bcc1dcbd48fc .centered-text-area { min-height: 80px; position: relative; } .u4e778ea8ccde5da21839bcc1dcbd48fc , .u4e778ea8ccde5da21839bcc1dcbd48fc:hover , .u4e778ea8ccde5da21839bcc1dcbd48fc:visited , .u4e778ea8ccde5da21839bcc1dcbd48fc:active { border:0!important; } .u4e778ea8ccde5da21839bcc1dcbd48fc .clearfix:after { content: ""; display: table; clear: both; } .u4e778ea8ccde5da21839bcc1dcbd48fc { display: block; transition: background-color 250ms; webkit-transition: background-color 250ms; width: 100%; opacity: 1; transition: opacity 250ms; webkit-transition: opacity 250ms; background-color: #95A5A6; } .u4e778ea8ccde5da21839bcc1dcbd48fc:active , .u4e778ea8ccde5da21839bcc1dcbd48fc:hover { opacity: 1; transition: opacity 250ms; webkit-transition: opacity 250ms; background-color: #2C3E50; } .u4e778ea8ccde5da21839bcc1dcbd48fc .centered-text-area { width: 100%; position: relative ; } .u4e778ea8ccde5da21839bcc1dcbd48fc .ctaText { border-bottom: 0 solid #fff; color: #2980B9; font-size: 16px; font-weight: bold; margin: 0; padding: 0; text-decoration: underline; } .u4e778ea8ccde5da21839bcc1dcbd48fc .postTitle { color: #FFFFFF; font-size: 16px; font-weight: 600; margin: 0; padding: 0; width: 100%; } .u4e778ea8ccde5da21839bcc1dcbd48fc .ctaButton { background-color: #7F8C8D!important; color: #2980B9; border: none; border-radius: 3px; box-shadow: none; font-size: 14px; font-weight: bold; line-height: 26px; moz-border-radius: 3px; text-align: center; text-decoration: none; text-shadow: none; width: 80px; min-height: 80px; background: url(; position: absolute; right: 0; top: 0; } .u4e778ea8ccde5da21839bcc1dcbd48fc:hover .ctaButton { background-color: #34495E!important; } .u4e778ea8ccde5da21839bcc1dcbd48fc .centered-text { display: table; height: 80px; padding-left : 18px; top: 0; } .u4e778ea8ccde5da21839bcc1dcbd48fc .u4e778ea8ccde5da21839bcc1dcbd48fc-content { display: table-cell; margin: 0; padding: 0; padding-right: 108px; position: relative; vertical-align: middle; width: 100%; } .u4e778ea8ccde5da21839bcc1dcbd48fc:after { content: ""; display: block; clear: both; } READ: Listening to God's Voice EssayBut look thou stay not till the watch be set,For then thou canst not pass to Mantua. Where thou shalt live till we can find a timeTo blaze your marriage,

Friday, November 29, 2019

Laughter In Austen Essays - Pride And Prejudice, Mr. Darcy

Laughter In Austen "It is a truth universally acknowledged, that a single man in possession of a good fortune must be in want of a wife." What we read is just the opposite; a single woman must be in want of a man with a good fortune. In this first line of Jane Austen's Pride and Prejudice we are at once introduced to language rich with satire. The comic tendencies displayed in the novel's language introduce a theme very important to the novel?the character's laughter and their attitudes towards laughter as an index to their morality and social philosophy. Beginning with Darcy's opinion, expressed early in the novel, that Miss Bennet"smiled too much," attitudes towards laughter divide the characters. Most obviously Darcy, all "grave propriety," is opposed to Elizabeth, who has a"lively, playful disposition, which delighted in anything ridiculous." We tend to consider Elizabeth's position the normative?more closely aligned with modern theories of humor. She laughs at hypocrisy, vanity, pretension, the gap between statement and action, and between theory and practice. On the other hand, Darcy takes a conservative attitude toward laughter. His taciturn disposition and unwillingness to be the butt of mirth are clearly described. He tells those assembled in the Netherfield drawing room that "it has been the study of his life to avoid those weaknesses which often expose a strong understanding to ridicule." But the deficiencies of this view, evident enough in Darcy's own demeanor, are revealed in the parodies of it which appear in the novel. Everywhere in Pride and Prejudice, pompous gravity is laughed out of existence. In the absurdly formal utterances of a Mary Bennet or a Mr. Collins (neither of whom is ever known to laugh), Austen demonstrates that a total lack of humor has effects the reverse of what a situation demands. One example of this is in Mr. Collins' parody of the prodigal son in his letter of"consolation" to Mr. Bennet on news of Lydia's elopement: "Let me advise console yourself as much as possible, to throw off your unworthy child from your affection forever, and leave her to reap the fruits of her own heinous offence." Yet another example is Mary's formulaic response to the same event: "we must stem the tide of malice, and pour into the wounded bosoms of each other, the balm of sisterly consolation." The humor of these characters lies in their unawareness of the claims of spontaneity in certain situations. They can produce, instead, rote and "institutional" responses. In fact, Mr. Collins admits to Mr. Bennet that he arranges beforehand "such little elegant compliments as may be adapted to ordinary occasions." Elizabeth's attitude is very different. In an early conversation, she and Miss Bingley form a temporary alliance to poke fun at Darcy. Elizabeth desires to "Tease him?laugh at him," and to Miss Bingley's demure and pompous refusal cries: "Mr. Darcy is not to be laughed at! That is an uncommon advantage, and uncommon I hope it will continue, for it would such a great loss to me to have so many such an acquaintance. I dearly love to laugh." Elizabeth is a defender of banter as a means of proving the worth of a person or idea. And when Darcy later defends himself by pointing out that "the wisest and best of men, nay, the wisest and best of their actions, may be rendered ridiculous by a person whose first object in life is a joke." Elizabeth replies, "Certainly there are such people, but I hope I am not one of them. I hope I never ridicule what is wise or good. Follies and nonsense, whims and inconsistencies do divert me, I own, and I laugh at them whenever I can." When Darcy somewhat pontifically distinguishes between pride and vanity, "Elizabeth turned away to hide a smile..." Yet another points in the novel, Elizabeth's view of humor does not prevail as laughter becomes, on occasions, everything the grave Darcy suggests it to be. Mr. Bennet, for example, employs his wit as an assertion of superiority required by his sense of defeat: "For what do we live, but to make sport for our neighbours, and laugh at them in our turn?" No less subversive is Lydia's laughter, however different her loud buffoonery is from her father's cool satire. Lydia's laughter is excessive and silly, and beyond this, her hyperboles ("Aye," "Lord,"), her grammatical failures ("Kitty and me were to spend the day there"), and her constant inattention to the decorum required of the occasion (as when she interrupts Mr. Collins in his

Monday, November 25, 2019

Valleys and Gullies

Valleys and Gullies Valleys and Gullies Valleys and Gullies By Mark Nichol A variety of words serve to describe geographical features characterized by low-lying terrain between higher elevations of land. This post lists and defines many of these terms. Valley, ultimately from the Latin term valles by way of Anglo-French and Middle English, most generically describes such an area, a length of the surface of Earth or any other solid planet or natural satellite that separates hills or mountains or through which a river system often flows. The word may also describe an artificial feature resembling a valley, such as the line along which two sloping portions of a roof meet, or may be used figuratively to refer to a low condition or point, often part of the phrase â€Å"peaks and valleys.† Vale is a variant with the same etymological origin, used more in poetic contexts than prosaic ones, such as when it is employed as a metaphor for the world in the phrase â€Å"vale of tears.† Canyon, occasionally seen with the spelling of its Spanish source caà ±on (probably from an obsolete Spanish word derived from the Latin term callis, meaning â€Å"path†) refers to a deep, narrow, steep-sided valley or something suggesting such a feature, such as a street passing between two rows of tall buildings. Cirque, meanwhile, from the Latin word circus, meaning â€Å"circle,† is such a feature in mountainous terrain forming a basin at the end of a valley. A combe (the word is also occasionally spelled coombe or coomb) is a deep, narrow valley or a basin adjacent to a hillside. The word, used mostly in British English, is of Celtic origin; in Welsh, it is spelled cwm. Dale and its similar-looking cognate dell, both of which derive from Old English, describe a small grassy or forested valley; the word is delated to Old High German tal, which, as part of the name of a location where German coins were minted, inspired the word dollar. Both dale and dell are used primarily in poetic or archaic usage, such as in the phrase â€Å"hill and dale,† although the use of dell in the traditional song â€Å"Farmer in the Dell† likely stems from an unrelated Dutch word. Dene, also from Old English, is a British English term for a low-lying area, and dingle shares a language origin and a definition with dale and dell. Old Irish, meanwhile, contributes the word glen, meaning â€Å"valley.† From the Latin term gurga comes gorge, which refers to a narrow area such as a canyon floor or part of it. (Gorge has several additional meanings, such as â€Å"throat or stomach† and â€Å"something that chokes a passage,† and as a verb it alludes to the former sense, meaning â€Å"eat or partake of in large amounts.†) Gulch, probably from the Middle English word gulchen, refers to a steep cut in the land, as does gully, which likely stems from the Latin word gula by way of the Middle English term golet, from which gullet is also derived. (Gully may also refer to a small water-formed natural trench.) Hollow, from the Old English word holh, from which hole is also derived, describes a small basin or valley. In American English dialects, it is sometimes pronounced (and spelled) holler. The Latin term rapina, meaning â€Å"rapine,† is the source of ravine, referring to a steep-sided valley between a gully and a canyon in size. The connection between the name of the geographical feature and a word associated with assaulting and plundering is the sense of rapina of â€Å"sweeping away,† in reference to the action of water rushing through it. One type of valley is a rift valley; the term rift, from a Scandinavian word for â€Å"fissure,† describes the low-lying area between two roughly parallel geological faults or groups of faults. Want to improve your English in five minutes a day? Get a subscription and start receiving our writing tips and exercises daily! Keep learning! Browse the Vocabulary category, check our popular posts, or choose a related post below:How to Structure A Story: The Eight-Point Arc40 Synonyms for â€Å"Different†Comma Before Too?

Thursday, November 21, 2019

FLOOD DAMAGE TO COMMERCIAL PROPERTIES Essay Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 1000 words

FLOOD DAMAGE TO COMMERCIAL PROPERTIES - Essay Example bviously, the client is left with no choice other than relocate for some time until the water in the basement is flushed out and the necessary repairs to the damaged service infrastructure comprising the main electricity intake room, telecommunications hub and the IT server room are carried out. Firstly, it is necessary to assess the damages caused by the flood. This comprises the damages suffered by the basement interiors, electricity wiring, telecommunications hub and the IT server. Damages were also done to the ground floor although not to the extent of the one in the basement (Flood Prevention Schemes, 2005). The client is right in questioning the suitability of the current flood prevention measures because the flood prevention measures have not effectively shielded the building against the flood and the consequent damages. Obviously, the flooding in the area is a recent phenomenon because of changes in climatic conditions and global warming that is causing floods and hurricanes ubiquitously. Undoubtedly, repairs needed in the basement are extensive and it is going to involve time. The entire wiring may require to be changed and even the telecommunications hub and IT server may require replacing. Now the waters still present in the basement have to be flushed out, and the interior walls thoroughly cleansed and treated against organisms like molds (Brandt, Mary et al, 2006). Moreover, the ground floor too suffered some damages and process to remove the sewage water in the ground floor of the building must be carried out. Apparently, the floodwaters have been in the basement for quite a while now, perhaps a couple of days. Nothing could be done earlier because of the continuous inflow of floodwaters and/or due to rains (Brody, Samuel D et al, 2007). The client has questioned the suitability of the current flood prevention measures in the building and surrounding area and has asked for outline proposals that would improve the current provision. As mentioned

Wednesday, November 20, 2019

Health education standards Essay Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 500 words

Health education standards - Essay Example These topics were addressed at aiding the students in assisting students to obtain better personal relationships with their families, to introduce the notion of community health, to emphasize individual responsibility in regards to attaining a healthy lifestyle with particular attention paid to the need for physical activity and the dangers associated with tobacco use. The changes, in sum, mandated a more structural and comprehensive approach to health education. Teachers were expected to present health education in terms of the individual, the family, and the community. This more comprehensive approach to health education was to be illustrated using such fluid contexts as the school, mental health, and the prevention of violence. The apparent goals were to create an awareness of health issues in real life situations. The vision espoused by the proponents of these changes is fundamentally empowering. Rather than delving into basic health values the changes seek to truly and inspire the youth of California to identify health issues at a number of levels, to understand how health issues are best taken care of, and to promote a sense of individual responsibility. Again, the most novel aspect of today’s health care vision is its integrated and structural nature. There is a stress placed upon interdependence; more particularly, the vision stresses the interrelationships among health ideas, healthy people, healthy families, healthy schools, and healthy communities. Individual responsibility is important, but it serves mostly as a foundation upon which to construct larger types of healthy communities and groups. In short, the individual student is encouraged to accept a personal responsibility to contribute to each group he or she encounters and to function as an essential building block of a lar ger community. In order to pursue these noble objectives students are encouraged to view health issues, be they physical or mental, as part of their

Monday, November 18, 2019

Bob took a pistol with him on a visit to the hospital to see his Essay

Bob took a pistol with him on a visit to the hospital to see his terminally ill father. At his father's request, Bob killed hi - Essay Example Bob action can be considered to be well thought before committing the crime because he carried a pistol with him to the hospital to see his father. A loaded pistol by any definition is a lethal weapon and the action of carrying it to the hospital, a place that does not present any reasonable threat to his life or that of his father is an indication of his intention to kill. In this case, his action amounts to murder and he is guilty of first-degree murder if it is not proved that, his terminally ill father requested Bob to shoot and kill him. However, if his father requested Bob to shoot him in the head and kill him, Bob’s action amounts to the crime of assisting self-murder and hence he would answer to the charges of manslaughter. According to Jordan, Van Dyke and Malone (2008,) helping someone to commit suicide is a criminal offense in the United States. In this case, if it is established that Bob assisted his father to commit suicide by obeying his request to shoot him, he is guilty of second-degree murder. The laws governing assisted self-suicide vary in different states across the US, and Oregon is the only jurisdiction in the world that allows doctors to assist terminally ill patients to commit self-suicide (Siegel, 2008). References Jordan, P., Van Dyke, M. & Malone, L.(2009).

Saturday, November 16, 2019

Triple Bottom Line (TBL) Concept Analysis

Triple Bottom Line (TBL) Concept Analysis Jin Thai, Chong In this assignment, the notion of Triple Bottom Line (TBL) reporting is being analysed critically. The definition of the term, created by John Elkington, as well as its concept and general principles (social, environment and economic lines) are discussed in this report. Representations of TBL in the Business and Government Organisations sectors are further explored with its five different interpretations: Wait and see, Packaging information for community right to know, stakeholder alignment, endorsing core principles, and holistic cultural perspective. The relationship between sustainable development and TBL is discussed in the report by considering the environmental sustainability, economic sustainability and social sustainability, with a backing example of the TBL Toolkit and the The Capital Works Sustainability Statement practiced in the city of Melbourne. The application of TBL in sustainable construction and its indicators of social and environmental, and economic performance us ed in the construction sector are also discussed in the report. Lastly, a case study has been done on Enviro-Cottage constructed in Spring Hill, Brisbane. The project has addressed TBL reporting considering the sustainable development and construction aspects. TABLE OF CONTENTS (Jump to) Introduction Principles of Triple Bottom Line Sustainable development Application of  TBL in sustainable construction Case study: Enviro-Cottage   Conclusion   Introduction Triple bottom line (TBL) reporting is becoming more common across many sectors of society. Although the concept was born out of the corporate and business world to report corporate social responsibility conveniently, it has been embraced by many organisations to give social and environmental agendas more prominence in the face of corporatist globalisation (Price, R n.d.). The term Triple Bottom Line was formed by John Elkington in 1997. Based in UK as a consultant to companies like BO, DuPont and the World Bank, John Elkington has been described by Business Week as a dean of the corporate responsibility movement for three decades (John Elkington 2010). Instead of the usual financial bottom line, Elkington define and expanded the baseline for measuring performance using social, environmental and economic bottom lines (Centre for ISA Information Sheet 7 n.d.). Elkington stated on his book, Cannibals with Forks that: The triple bottom line focuses corporations not just on the economic value they add, but also on the environmental and social value they add and destroy. At its narrowest, the term triple bottom line is used as a framework for measuring and reporting corporate performance against economic, social and environmental parameters (Elkington,, J 1998). Generally, Triple bottom line is an integrated management approach that consists of managing, measuring and publicly reporting performance in business and government sectors (Potts, T 2004). TBL also acts as a medium to discuss issues regarding the organisation and the community. According to A Tool For Measuring, Communicating, And Facilitating Change In Local Governments by Tavis Potts, TBL is a correspondence and process for reporting on sustainability and the results allow for communities to engage in an ongoing discussion. For sustainable organisations this means balancing the needs of the organisation against the environmental, economic and social factors, as depicted in Figure 1 to enhance the quality of life. Business Sector In the business sector, the growing tension between increased social values and conventional forms of value creation has forced consideration of sustainability (including TBL reporting). Pressure has been applied on organisations to be more socially and environmentally responsible in their pursuit of profit (Beilin, R Paine, M, Pryor R 2007). As an example, BP Australia reported that a TBL approach to business provides them with a sustainable competitive advantage and it is also in a good business sense to do so. It demonstrates to stakeholders the integrity of a business or industry, thus it improves its reputation, increases investor confidence and enhances marketing and profit opportunities. Governments Sector Similarly to businesses, local governments have adopted the TBL in response to community concern about issues of environmental sustainability. In the governments sector, the field of organisational accountability has broadened. Government organisations must now consider the wider impacts of their practices on other local, regional, national and even global stakeholders (Beilin, R Paine, M, Pryor R 2007). Growing government interest in corporate social and environmental responsibility is expressed in policy at local, State and Federal levels. TBL reporting has changed the appearance of the role of government in regulating private businesses and industries. Further, TBL has come to demonstrate good public relations in government organisations with its integrated focus on social, environmental and economic outcomes of practice. Principles of Triple Bottom Line The three vital aspects of corporate and government performance are based on Triple Bottom Line are the economic, social and environmental lines. TBL is also interpreted in 5 ways in business and governments sectors. The Economic Bottom Line The economic bottom line is the organisations record of economic performance (revenue and profit) and integrity. Even though the companies make profits in the business, profit is treated as the economic benefit for the enjoyment of the employees and community as a whole within a sustainability framework. The Social or People Bottom Line The social bottom line is the organisations record of social or people performance as it affects employees, consumers, and communities. This also refers to fair, ethical, and beneficial business practices toward employees, community, and country in which a corporation performs its business. The Environmental Bottom Line The environmental bottom line is the organisations record of performance as it considers all the issues related with environmental concerns. The goal of 21stà ¢Ã¢â€š ¬Ã‚ century companies is not only to help protect the environment by producing green or environmentally responsible products but also to have their own sustainable, environmentally-sound business operating practices. Organisations are expected to function in an environmentally responsible approach, through initiatives such as taking steps to reduce their own environmental footprint, consuming less energy and little or no non-renewable resources and producing less waste. Five interpretation of TBL Five broad categories capture the current diverse state of TBL performance measurement and reporting in Australia according to Triple Bottom Line Measurement and Reporting In Australia. The five categories are more to show the diverse business rationales and analysis of community expectations for triple bottom line measuring and reporting (Suggett, D, Goodsir, B 2002). Wait and see Wait and see is the category where organisations are satisfied with their present approaches to communication and accountability. Examples of such companies are Fosters and Woolworths. This may due to the fact that a change is not necessary in their business priorities, as well as a sense of potential benefit as it is still early in their business to use the TBL approach without understanding the directions of the business. Packaging information for community right to know By observing the community right to know attitude and supporting the notion of greater responsibility to the community for their business performance, other organisations make an obligation to their stakeholders to be open and transparent. To meet this commitment, they collect and package internal information or report for external audience. This report shows the values they seek to meet, their performance against those standards and a description of their activities. Examples of companies practising this approach of TBL in environmental reporting are Wesfarmers and Orica. As they continue to collect data, report on and verify approaches, those organisations do not see that a change in approach is required to embrace social or economic scopes. Stakeholder Alignment This approach analyses the relationship between stakeholders expectations and corporate strategy. In order for TBL reporting to derive maximum value, it is necessary that the information reported aligns with business strategy and objectives and accurately reflects the focus of the company activity. This serves to strengthen the significance of companies developing indicators in a structured way that reflects their objectives and the requirements of key stakeholder groups. As the stakeholders could be the shareholders, investors, employees, customers, suppliers, the community and government, organisations practicing this approach will be required to set up new management systems and in a long run is intensive on the business resource. One example is the WMC. WMC continues to expand in this direction and a number of other companies have embarked on the first steps, such as Westpac and ANZ. Endorsing Core Principles A few organisations outline their response to stakeholder expectations into values that guide their business activity: sustainability principles. Examples of organisations are Rio Tinto and Shell. This approach is directed at integrating these core principles into management practices. Holistic Cultural Perspective Organisations in private ownership define their business purpose and their commitment to sustainability values and accountability as a whole. Their business success depends on this cultural perspective. The Body Shop is the often-quoted example and the Co-operative Bank in the United Kingdom. Sustainable Development Sustainability is a pattern of resource use that aims to simultaneously meet human needs and preserve the environment so that these needs can be met not only for the present generation, but also for future generations. Sustainable development ties together the concern for the carrying capacity of natural systems with the social challenges (Sustainable construction gives a competitive edge n.d). Conceptually, sustainable development can be broken down into three constituent parts: Environmental sustainability Economic sustainability Social sustainability Sustainable development is often portrayed as the act of balancing economic, ecological and social concerns, and the TBL is commonly used internationally to prove corporate performance on sustainability and its approach to sustainable development in the corporate world. However, in sustainable development, TBL also concentrates on the external structure of development and excludes the internal structure of development. In other words, TBL also focuses on technological, economic and institutional development while excluding cultural and personal development (Riedy, C 2003). As an example, the City of Melbourne is using TBL approach to accomplish the goal of sustainable development. The city has developed a TBL Toolkit which includes checklists, guidelines, templates and case studies for the application of TBL decision-making and reporting (Triple-Bottom-Line Evaluation Approach Shows Promise for Local Government 2004). Part of this tool is the The Capital Works Sustainability Statement and it is a rating system that recognizes the degree to which a project contributes to the Councils sustainability objectives. The Capital Works tool is being applied to different ways, such as the bidding of capital works, budget approval process, and evaluating criteria against of capital works. Through this TBL approach, councils are able to demonstrate responsibility and transparency in decision making and administration. Moreover, TBL approach in the public sector including local government has helped to develop global standards and procedures in reporting decisions at all levels (Triple-Bottom-Line Evaluation Approach Shows Promise for Local Government 2004). Application of  TBL in Sustainable Construction Construction activities worldwide consume 40 per cent of all raw material exploited globally (Sustainable construction gives a competitive edge n.d.). For this reason, the use of sustainable building materials can help improve the global environment significantly. The public demand for sustainable solutions is growing, and in the years to come, contractors who are able to document sustainable methods will have a strong presence in the market. In order to make construction sustainable, one has to practise TBL in order to consider the environmental impacts of extraction, transportation, processing, fabrication, installation, reuse, recycling, and disposal of these materials. It is easy to understand why TBL has received acceptance in sustainable construction. Indicators of social and environmental performance are used to diversify work and practices of construction sector. TBL allows organisations to assess quantitatively and qualitatively how they are achieving their key performance indicators (Triple Bottom Line: A Ticket to the Game Or The Emperors New Clothes? 2005). TBL has been applied to the construction sector in the UK where the phrase Sustainable Construction has been coined. The UK Government is seeking to apply sustainable development practices to the construction industry. Leading construction companies in the UK, USA and Europe now report annually on social and environmental performance as well as financial performance. Jim Lammie, director of Parsons Brinckerhoff in a speech on sustainability of 8 September 2004 said that over 77% of construction companies in the UK had a sustainable development policy to deal with regulation, competitive edge, client policy, enhanced reputation, legal risks and future investments as well as addressing ethical obligations. Lessons from the construction industry overseas have a place for Australian construction companies who want to outperform their counter-parts in a society becoming increasingly aware of such issues. Implementing daily practices to elicit performance under TBL can be as simple as adop ting recycling programs, giving to the workforce through university sponsorship programs and adopting best practice voluntary standards. When a full assessment of practices are made construction players may find that they are already carrying out sustainable practices but are not reaping the reward through reporting their practices to stakeholders. Truly sustainable construction practices may mean assessing projects and work practices with TBL in mind (Triple Bottom Line: A Ticket to The Game Or The Emperors New Clothes? 2005). The triple bottom line concept of sustainable construction could be achieved through the application of sustainable design principles at early stages of planning and construction. By making these decisions earlier, it creates a building which is safer, secure, flexible, comfortable, environmentally-friendly and cost-efficient in the long-run. A sustainable construction project should be designed and constructed to take account of the principles of sustainable design which is to balance the social, environmental and economic aspects (Sustainable Homes Triple bottom line 2008). The triple bottom line approach to sustainable construction is a balanced integration of design factors that consists of social, environmental and economic sustainability. Social Sustainable buildings are designed for the people considering access, safety, security; it is a design that considers the clients future needs throughout various stages of lives, such as young families, older residents or residents with varying disabilities. Sustainably constructed buildings are safe, easily adaptable to suit a diverse range of needs and comfortable for people with varying abilities at different stages of their lives. This is especially relevant considering the elderly amongst our ageing population (Sustainable Homes Triple bottom line 2008). Socially sustainable construction can also strengthen social networks and allow people of every age and ability to participate in their community throughout their life. An aesthetically pleasing and stimulating built environment will reinforce the sense of well being of residents and people in the local community of the building. Under the social aspect of TBL reporting, the local society and streetscape should also be considere d in order to ensure considerate development, enhancement of the streetscape and the community function (Triple bottom line in housing n.d.). Environmental Sustainable construction are resource-efficient by incorporating sustainable and efficient management of water, energy and waste with other features such as passive solar design by considering the orientation, ventilation, insulation, shading and building materials (Sustainable Homes Triple bottom line 2008). Resource efficiency is also related to water efficiency in the building, waste management of materials used during construction, and energy efficiency by practising good passive design and high star-rated green technology appliances and lights. It is also associated with the reduced usage of greenhouse gas emissions from energy consumption. Local market for materials should be considered as well (Triple bottom line in housing n.d.). Besides that, resource efficiency also means lifestyle benefits for residents of the buildings as the thermal comfort is improved (social sustainability) and affordable running costs for the home (economic sustainability). Economic Economic sustainability of TBL reporting means designs and construction which are more cost-efficient in a long-run, considering the selection of low maintenance materials. Extra expense during construction should be provided for longer term operating cost savings as it is important to obtain the choices of design and material right the first time as it eliminates the need to make additional costly changes to the construction later. Besides that, installation of solar panels or water tanks will also increase the value of the property (Triple bottom line in housing n.d.). During the selection of building material, suppliers should consider the materials from local market. It is to optimise costs through reduced transportation expenses to the site (Sustainable Homes Triple bottom line 2008). Sustainable construction could become cost-efficiently over time by improving the design and construction features and the use of low-maintenance materials. Usage of appliances with high energy-star ratings that reduce the ongoing costs of running the home should be encouraged. By practicing sustainable construction, energy and water bills are lowered and potential future modification costs are greatly reduced, thus making the home more adaptable and flexible over its life cycle. Case study: Enviro-Cottage Enviro-Cottage is constructed in Spring Hill, Brisbane. It was built as a workers cottage in the late 1800s. During 2008, the houses were transformed from a traditional Brisbane cottage into a sustainable development for inner-city living. Enviro-Cottage as shown in Figure 2 is not a new, purpose-built house unlike other display homes. It is a renovation project that highlights the simple, technological and the necessary construction methods to help make a home more efficient by using less electricity, water and other resources, while improving how people live in the available space. Some of the ideas are very simple and easy to apply in any home renovation or construction projects to reduce its environmental footprint. Examples of sustainable construction methods used are passive design, thermal mass and solar orientation (Enviro-Cottage n.d.). Other revolutionary sustainable ideas are the installation of solar cell technology, water tank and grey water systems, glass technology, kitchen and laundry appliances, taps and showers, insulation, flooring, paints and other finishes, heating and cooling systems, and energy efficient lighting. The Spring Hill Enviro-Cottage Project has addressed the TBL reporting (Triple bottom line in housing n.d). Examples of the Enviro-Cottage TBL report considerations included in the sustainable development and construction according to Our Brisbane are: Social sustainability Enviro-Cottage is constructed to be multi-purpose. Its multi-use design is suitable for people from different background, such as families, users with disabilities, and elderly people. The cottage is constructed using the local Tuff stone to tie to Spring Hills heritage and preservation of the heritage streetscape Open front aspect to connect with local street life Open design to aid easy internal and external surveillance High security features to all doors and windows with simple and consistent locking systems The set back garage is designed and constructed to de-emphasise the role of the car Addition of two off-street parking options takes two cars off the crowded local street Preservation of the heritage streetscape Environmental sustainability The constructed building maximize the use of passive solar design features, such as implementing natural energy flows, and minimising the scale of overlaid systems lighting, cooling etc. There is no air conditioning or other mechanical heating or cooling systems required in the design. Rainwater is being capture, used, recycled and re-used as much as possible, inclusion of grey water processing system. Generation of required energy needs through onsite photovoltaic system and where possible provision of clean renewable energy back to the community. During construction, environmentally preferred materials are used (Eg. no use of rainforest or old growth forest products). Existing 1800s building are renovated to reduce consumption of new materials Materials with a lifespan equivalent to the projected life of the building are used during construction. Local products and materials are sourced where possible, thus minimising energy used to transport materials. Economic sustainability Enviro-Cottage practises passive solar design and the environmental- friendly products will take future operating costs down to a minimum. Modular design, flexible usage model, and choice of long lifespan materials selected to build the house will minimise any necessities for future renovations, thus decreasing ongoing construction costs. The Enviro-Cottage project has demonstrated sustainable development through TBL reporting and the project signified sustainable living ideas, solution and options which can be part of most constructions even when it is challenged with the many constraints facing such renovations such as council building codes, existing dwelling condition and design, and smaller block sizes. Conclusion In conclusion, the TBL concept demonstrates responsibility to stakeholders in terms of economic, social and environmental impact. The idea behind TBL reporting is sustainable success which will benefit the organisations. Benefits include better reputation and increased confidence, benchmarked performance, increased operational efficiency, stakeholder satisfaction, as well as improved risk management of the business. TBL reports may have different representations in the business and government sectors, and each of the sectors has different interpretation of TBL. TBL reporting is one way organisations can add value to their daily practices of their business. In terms of sustainable development and construction, TBL is the union of the three constituent parts social, environment, and economic. TBL is commonly used to prove corporate performance on sustainability as it covers accountability in an economic, social and environmental sense.